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The process of academic writing.

By on December 11, 2018

The process of academic writing requires a good research project template and a good plan. The planning phase can be challenging for the novel researcher. However, through the guidance of an experienced researcher, the novel researcher should be able to locate appropriate sources and take the time to read each source while making notes. In the process of reviewing existing literature, the researcher should also consider ways in which to use the information. owing to the complexity of activities involved in literature review, which  include the ability to locate, review, paraphrase, incorporate, and cite relevant and reliable secondary source, this essay seeks to explain the literature review process to the novel researcher to make it easier to use secondary sources of information during the research process.

The first step in the literature review process involves locating relevant secondary sources for the research topic identified. Some of the secondary sources include library catalogue which consists of newspaper articles, journals, magazines, encyclopedias and books. Other sources may include online database where the researcher can search for journals on the topic for which he or she intends to write about. To determine whether the secondary source is valid and reliable, the researcher should preview the authors of the secondary source to know if he or she has the relevant authority or experience in the selected subject. Another important approach to know whether the source is relevant for the topic is by identifying whether the author is analyzing, interpreting of discussing an event in the text. In addition, the researcher should identify the relationship that the author has to the topic being presented in the text. Finally, it is important to consider the publication date of the secondary source. This is because if the source is too old, it may be irrelevant to the current situation.

The next phase after identifying a list of valid and relevant secondary sources is to read the text and make notes. In order to avoid plagiarism, the researcher should paraphrase the authors points and identify ways in which to in cooperate the text based on the outline of the research project that he or she has developed. Every important points obtained from the secondary source should fit into the different sections of the academic writing project. It can either advance an argument or assert a fact or a statement of truth that is in line with the topic that the author is trying to address. Additionally, in cooperating the secondary source, the author should  ensure that there is a logical flow of ideas and paragraphs with a clear unity and connectedness between the different sections using transitional clauses.

The researcher should cite the secondary sources appropriately. Every idea that was obtained from a secondary source and paraphrased should be cited as a way to acknowledge the author of the source. Citation can either be in text or at the end of a sentence. Different referencing styles can be used. However, the choice of a referencing style may be dictated by the academic institution to which the author will be presenting the work. Examples include APA, MLA, Havard, and Chicago. Finally, the author should provide a list of all the secondary sources that were reviewed when writing the paper. This is presented at the references section of the paper.

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Basic guidelines in writing a research report

By on December 5, 2018

The primary goal of a research report is to determine a trend, association, or relationship between certain phenomena with the aim of informing or solving an existing problem. Thus, a research report is a critical document since it presents findings that contribute to the already existing literature and can be used as a tool for decision-making. Before beginning any research report, it is important to plan the scope of the research regarding the sample size, location, financial costs, and the objective of the study (Crawley et.al, 2007). The researcher should also ensure they record data in an unbiased manner and store it in safe locations. When the fieldwork is done, the researcher can now focus on writing a report.

The main sections of a research report are the title, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, and references. The title should be brief and definite; readers decide whether they will continue reading a report or not based on the title. For example, Is there a positive correlation between the number of hours a student sleeps and their average GPA score? The abstract gives an overview of the paper and the findings; it is almost similar to an executive summary. The introduction highlights the problem statement and the strategy that the researcher will use. The method section describes any mathematical formulae, software, and procedures used to collect and analyze the data. Finally, in the results and discussion section, the researcher compares his/her results with previous studies and gives recommendations. In case there any sharp differences or unexpected findings, the researcher is expected to identify them and give a probable reason for such a pattern. The final part is the reference list that is used to list all the secondary sources of information after in texting in the report.

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