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Indian Mutiny and the Taiping Rebellion against Globalization

By on January 5, 2018

The globalization of Chinese and the Indian societies can be traced back to the time of the Indian Mutiny and the Taiping rebellion.  The state of the globalization of the two countries has a mark of origin from the two movements. The two movements, the Indian Tutiny, and the Taiping rebellion ruled Indian and China at the same. This paper will embark on the reaction of the indigenous people from each country as far as the attempt to globalize their country was concerned. Both the Indian mutiny and the Chinese Taiping rebellion held different views and policy as far the development and transformation of their society and the way of life was concerned. The role of each movement will be analyzed independently. However, the conclusion will outline their differences.

Chines Taiping rebellion

The Taiping rebellion was in leadership between 1814 and 1864, under the leadership of a Christian, Hong Xiuquan. This movement came at a time when the Chinese country was under massive corruption, and leaders were not caring about the welfare the local people. It is at this time that the leadership of the Manchu dynasty was at the peak.  This administration had no heart of the people and acted not for the benefit of the Chinese people but for their personal gain. Hong, who was an active Christian, led the Chinese to their liberation. He said that God sent him, as the second brother of Jesus, to come and liberate the Chinese people from the chain of poverty, corruption and poor governance. He founded the Taiping movement that was to see China transform into a modern society.  Having studied priesthood in Europe, he knew what was meant by having a good government, people sovereignty, freedom and an operating economy. Hong led the Taiping rebellion against the ill actions of the Manchu dynasty government that were meant to suppress the citizens so that the leaders would continue to remain in their leadership positions at the expense of the poor Chinese nationals. The rebels sought to rebuild and purify China to make it a place where everybody would be proud to live. They began the battle by recruiting and training the army that was to help them approach and deal with the Manchu government that saw the people of China succumb to poverty and miserable life. The movement, together with the help of the European Christian missionaries, saw the Manchu administration come down.

The Taiping rebellion was now in power and started its journey for reforming the County. This movement had the support of the locals, who had for a long time had suffered under the leadership of the Manchu administration. Unlike the conservative Manchu administration that was not open to change, the Taiping rebellion was welcoming to any idea that would help create a stable government and improve the way of life of the indigenous Chinese. For, instance, the Taiping rebellion never objected the penetration of the British government into their territory. Hong convinced his supporters that the British missionaries would bring about change in the religion. For a long time, the Chinese religion was characterized by worship of idol gods held culture and traditions that Hong and his movement highly objected. The Chinese locals, with the help of the Taiping rebellion, they welcome the European Christianity. Having studied Christianity in Europe, Hong was sure that the new form of worship would help people grow spiritually and abandon out-fashioned worshiping styles. As aforementioned, Hong called himself the savior, liberator and the younger brother of Jesus that was sent by God to liberate and transform China. With time, the Taiping rebellion was in full control of the Chinese government. They allowed people who came with different ideas that would transform what Hong described as an ill and rotten society. Most of the locals supported the work of the missionaries who saw them leave their traditional way of worship to join Christianity. Long before, Buddhism and Confucianism dominated the Chinese religion.

Other than the missionaries, they also welcome British investors and administrators. With time, the Taiping rebellion structured the government with the help of the British. Schools, hospital, social facilities, and infrastructures were developed. Access to quality medical was achieved. The Chinese were employed to work in textile companies that were owned by the British government. The life of the indigenous people changed after supporting Hong Xiuquan to overthrow the dynasty of the Manchu administration. A majority of the Chinese communities upheld the new form of religion and were happy with the leadership of the Hong who was a close ally of the Britain government. The journey to globalization was different in India under the leadership of the Indian mutiny.

Indian Mutiny Rebellion

As opposed to Taiping movement that was open to change, the Indian Mutiny was conservative and fought hard against any form of transformation that see the change in their society. As aforementioned, the Indian mutiny existed and operated at the same time as the Chinese Taiping rebellion. The difference between the two movements is the country each movement represented and the policy each held as far the transformation of the society was a concern. The Mutineers warned against any mean to change the Indian society. For instance, the mutineers, war with the European missionaries who came to change the way of worship of the Indian people. The movement was conservative and was not open to change. The movement was able to convince its followers and supporters not to embrace any mean that would transform their society. Society transformation must go hand in hand with the change in beliefs, traditions, culture and the custom of the community. People have to become civilized and start approaching things from a rational point of view. The view of the Indian mutiny was different. They made the locals that any change to their society would change their country to worse. The Indians were not ready to let go of their traditions.

Unlike the Chinese society that transformed under the leadership of Hong, the Christian leader of the Taiping movement, the Indians remained with their culture and traditions. In the beginning, they barred the penetration of the British Empire into their country arguing the European would no better than making them slaves, take their jobs, and exploit their country. Studies and records show that despite the fact that the British managed to penetrate into India, the Indians did not welcome whatsoever. They remained adamant to any change that the Briton came with. They believed that it was an abomination to leave their culture and adopt a culture of another person.

The policies of the mutiny administration were not supporting globalization in any way. Instead, they put obstacles to the same. Under the leadership of the mutiny rebellion, the impact of globalization was not achieved in India as it was realized in China.


The globalization of any country depends on the acceptance of the locals and the government to welcome and embrace change.  If the indigenous people remain conservative in their beliefs, traditions, and customs, it is hard to experience any change. As seen in this paper, the Indians, under the leadership of the Mutiny were blinded to accept the waves of change that happened in China. People must be ready to let go of their traditions and customs that add no value to their life. The proverb “change is like a rest” is just clear and to the point. The Indian remained chained by their traditions and old cultural practice because of rejecting globalization. Becoming modern have to involve civilization to a great extent; the Indian mutiny rejected any attempt that would civilize the people. They made the locals react to any form of civilization and globalization. The opposite happened in China under the leadership of the Taiping.

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Essay writing

Course Reflection Journal

By on November 20, 2017

Journal 1

So, I’ve started a college writing course that should have teach on how to write my essay. The college course has provided me with an excellent opportunity to learn about American History in various periods of time. The most absorbing part of the course was the Atlantic World exploration. I had never thought of the early historical interaction between Native Americans and the Europeans. The course has highlighted various ways Europeans came to America and brought social, economic, and political development. The Dutch played a significant role in the discovery of the Americas in the 17th century. It is gripping to learn that an explorer by the name Henry Hudson discovered North America in his journey to the Spice Islands of the East. Indeed, this discovery seems to be accidental because the explorers just tried to find a route that would have to lead them to the wealthy being.

It is also important to note that various political and economic factors contributed to the exploration of the Americas. In the 21st century, politics and trade have a great influence on international relations and the development of nations. In the same case, the European exploration of the 17th century was greatly influenced by the same authorities (Petrie, 2007). One of the economic factors that influenced the exploration was an attempt to find spices in the East. Trying to reach the spices, they came across the Americas (Petrie, 2007). The coincidence is intriguing as the search for wealth in the East led to the discovery of another fertile land that the Europeans would later exploit for their economic benefits. The Spanish also reached America searching for the wealth, as the Dutch did.

Although the explorers brought some misfortunes to the native inhabitants including diseases and war, they eventually helped colonial European powers to discover the riches of America and use them for the benefit of both the Europeans and the local inhabitants. I have once heard of a saying that a visitor brings blessings to the host. Indeed, the explorers brought blessings to the land of America by discovering the wealth of our vast land.

For the purpose of history, the European explorations help historians to understand the past experiences of America to shape the future of the country. Although historians dispute the argument that European explorers discovered America, it is clear that their exploration activities led to the discovery and exploitation of American resources. Before the coming of European explorers, there were lots of natives who carried out various economic activities including hunting, gathering, and agriculture. However, the European explorers brought a new way of exploiting resources in large scale to improve people’s lives. Their methods and practices helped the United States to discover their richness. I think this discovery is one of the reasons for the superpower of America politically and economically up to date.

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Criminological Perspectives

By on November 20, 2015

In the study of criminal behavior, there are several ways in which criminal activities are conceptualized. In the United States, two models are used to determine how the criminals will be sentenced. These models are in applied in relation to how the criminal behavior is perceived. These perceptions include viewing criminality from trait, classical and social perspectives. This paper will differentiate the three perspectives with reference to how determinate and indeterminate models of sentencing apply to them. Following that, the paper will recommend the most effective sentencing model.

Trait Criminological Perspective

Trait criminology perspective pays credence to the nature of the criminal. In so doing, it considers the biological and psychological state of the criminal. The theories derived from this approach state that criminals are inherently dissimilar to normal regular people in their somatic and behavioral make up. Following that, theorists have argued that some members of society who fit certain biological and psychological profiles are more predisposed that their regular counterparts to get involved in criminal activity. On the issue of redemption of these individuals, some theories argue that they can be taught on how to divert from their criminal ways, while other theories argue that they are irredeemable from their ways (Lowery, 2013).

These theories have been promulgated by behaviorists, evolutionists, biochemists, neurophysiologists and psychoanalysts. From a biological perspective, Lombroso asserted that certain morphologies are a determinant of criminality (Gibson, 2002). Criminals could, thereby, according to his theory, be profiled from deviation in their heads shapes from the majority of individuals in their locales. Facial asymmetry, ocular defects, fleshy lips, twisted noses and excessively long arms were other triggers that highlighted criminality. Sheldon differentiated body types by stating that some were ectomorphs due to their thinness, others were mesomorphs due to their excessive body fat and others mesomorphs due to their athleticism (Maddan, Walker, & Miller, 2008). Mesomorphs were thusly regarded as prone to criminal tendencies. However, these earlier theories were abandoned due to their incorrect methodology. From a neurophysiologic perspective, criminals are viewed as mentally impaired (Peters, 2010). Biochemical perspectives relate criminality to deficiencies in certain crucial nutrients such as vitamins. Genetic perspectives on the other hand believe in the inheritance of criminality, where criminal parents are predisposed to yield delinquent offspring.

Social Criminological Perspective

Social perspectives of criminal behavior are made up of the process theory and the structure theory. The process theory professes the idea that social interactions and processes in institutions and organizations are to blame for invoking criminal behavior in individuals. The structure theory on the other hand promulgates the idea that social structure is responsible for spawning criminality. In essence, variances in economic empowerment of the classes leave a disparity in power that makes the underprivileged to perpetrate crimes on the more affluent. However, both social theories affirm the truism that people will always behave as their environment’s product. In contrast to trait theory that lays an emphasis of the nature of humans in explaining criminality, this theory emphasizes that nurture is to be blamed for driving otherwise well-intentioned individuals into crime.

Therefore, the criminal himself is not as castigated as the neighborhood for the crime he or she commits since necessity and not defect was the key motivator. In essence, criminals are viewed as without free will since their behavior is determined by their nurture (Lynch & Stretsky, 2003). This perspective is linked to Marxist undertones since it asserts that most criminal behavior emanates from the oppressed classes. The theory is, therefore, relevant in the contemporary world since criminality levels in society can also be used to gauge and respond to poverty and class variance levels, which in turn will reduce the criminality levels. According to this perspective, by ensuring that the welfare of the lower classes is considered, criminal behavior can be minimized. This could happen through the awarding of grants, cheap affordable loans and tax concessions to them so as to empower them to be productive members of society.

Classical Criminological Perspective

The final category of criminological perspectives is the classical theory, also known as choice theory. This theory employs the truism that criminals should be viewed as rational beings. In that light, before they engage in a certain criminal activity, just like other human beings, they must have pondered on the merits and demerits of the crime but still went further to commit the crime. The idea of free will is primarily useful in this perspective since it dictates that human beings have the liberty to choose their actions, so long as they are ready to endure the consequences of their actions. The idea of deterrence is linked with the classical perspective of criminology. Deterrence refers to the concept of preventing criminal activities in society from happening through social control (Paternoster, 2010).

Researchers of the justice system have asserted that from this perspective, extant criminal behavior should not be attributed to the irrationality of the criminal but on the effect of criminal experiential effects. This refers to the idea that criminals who have repeatedly broken the law without detection often diminish and downplay perceived risk or demerit and engage in the crime anyway so as to be rewarded by his or her perceived utility. This theory, therefore, regards criminals as dangerous individuals, who were ready to suffer the legally accorded punishment even before they perpetrated the crime.

Sentencing Models

There are two sentencing models: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate sentencing refers to the concept of explicitly stating the punishment accorded to every conceivable crime type and sentencing each individual offender with accord to the punishment. In determinate sentencing on the other hand refers to the tailoring and customization of sentences for each individual offender through active scrutiny of the circumstances revolving around the crime. While the difference in the sentencing model may seem subtle, when criminology perspectives are integrated into the mix, choosing a model may prove difficult. In my opinion, however, when viewing a crime from a trait perspective, determinate sentencing is more effective, because letting each individual serve the full sentence allows him time for learning and readjustment since the theory suggests that natural predisposition can be controlled via learning.

Moreover, it rids society off criminals who cannot control themselves. From a social theory perspective, indeterminate sentencing should be applied since what this type of criminals need is to learn healthy integration into their environment. Upon serving their sentence, signs of good behavior should be enough to free them. From a classical criminology perspective, indeterminate sentencing would be more effective since once criminals learn how to make productive choices, they can be functional citizens upon reintegration into society.


It can be thereby concluded that indeterminate sentencing has more potential in enforcing crime deterrence. In the light of the above evidence, it can be said that the decision of choosing either determinate or indeterminate sentencing bears heavily upon the criminal and the society at large. This is because the wrong choice may put society at risk of the criminal’s brutality or inhibit the reform the criminal. However, since one cannot practically attribute criminality to a single perspective of the drivers of human actions due to the complex nature of the mind, it is important to consider a combination of perspectives so as to come up with the least biased decision.

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By on November 16, 2015

The Battle of Pensacola was one of the wars fought as result of American Revolution. The American forces fought against the United Kingdom (Britain), Spain, African American slaves, as well as Creek Native Americans, allied to the Briton. General Andrew Jackson, an American commander, led the war against the British forces that took control and oppressed Spaniards at Pensacola city which was part of Spanish Florida.  Commander Jackson defeated the British army who abandoned and surrendered the city. The paper will look at the causes and effects of the Battle of Pensacola.

Causes of the War

The Spanish forces attacked and successfully captured Mississippi and Louisiana which was under British control. A Spanish forces commander, General de Galvez in northern America was concerned about the Pensacola City occupied by the British. In 1781, the Spanish naval forces landed in Santa Rosa Islands with over 3,500 men and 40 ships. The forces attempted to occupy protectorate that resulted in the Battle of Pensacola.  The Spanish took the two months to occupy Pensacola ending British’s 18-year occupation.  Pensacola remained under the control of the Spanish for almost 40 years before they finally renounced her control in the year 1819.

The battle of Pensacola involved three different groups of people that included Spanish, British and the Americans.  Pensacola was the biggest Spanish capital in western Florida. The British after initial defeat in 1781 occupied and controlled Pensacola Bay.  The city was an essential foothold on the British control of Florida.  Jackson Andrew and the American troops wanted to liberate Spaniard who suffered under British Army.

The Pensacola City had just over one thousand people.  The settlement on the Pensacola Bay had the Fort San Miguel and Santa Island fort that protected and helped in the control of the upper gulf.  Commander Jackson used the Creek at the Horseshoe route in Alabama that led to the establishment of some to the suffering Red Stick Indians. The British were again interested in making their presence felt in Pensacola by 1814. The British under Major Nicholls Edward slowly occupied Pensacola without permission from Spanish governor Don Mateo Marquez.  The British had clear intentions to control the Gulf region and threatened to destroy the Spaniard if they assisted American troops. In September, Major Nicholls and the British attacked Mobile but were unsuccessful after which the Spanish government stopped cooperating with the occupying forces. The arrival of Americans and the deteriorating relationship with the Spaniards, the British fled the town only to consolidate at Santa Rosa and Fort San Carlos battery. Jackson with a 4000 men military escalated their attacks on November 7, 1814.

Jackson and the American troops intended to take Pensacola from British grasps. The Secretary of War at the time, James Monroe ordered the generals not to attack the city. The Washington feared to engage the Spaniards in a battle, but the orders were late. General Jackson had instructed the American fourth Battalion to invade Pensacola aggressively. However, Jackson attempted to sign a peace accord with the British but twice failed. More than 500 men moved to the western side of Pensacola, but the majority remained to invade Fort San Miguel from the eastern side.  The Spaniards Governor, Marique quickly was overwhelmed the 500 men thus immediately surrendering in the hope of saving the city from further destruction.  The American soldiers forced the British to abandon the city even with assistance from the Spaniards. Between November 7 and 8, the British army using their warship sailed from the bay.

Aftermaths and Effects of War

The Americans left Pensacola and left the Spaniards in control. Jackson was angry due to the quick defeat of the British and had already destroyed some parts of Spanish garrison. The general feared that the fleeing British would return and attack Mobile in Alabama. He ordered the securing of Mobile, but upon reaching the city, there was news that the British were attacking New Orleans. The two-day war resulted in seven deaths among American soldiers while eleven were seriously wounded.  The British and Spaniards suffered fifteen casualties.  Major Nicholls Edward is on record that none of the British troops died while there were 15 fatalities and several casualties among the Americans troops.


The Battle of Pensacola (1814) did not engage too many military operations but involved skirmishes instead of a full-fledged war.  However, the attacks were critical in the later battles of 1812 wars. Eventually, the Americans under General Jackson succeeded in to stem out British Activities and Intrigues in Florida. As a result, it squashed the hopes that the Spaniards and the British would ever cooperate in the region. The Spaniards enjoyed the freedom and had the guarantee that American army would never attack them[8]. After Pensacola, American troops rushed to New Orleans by the end of the year, and the war came to an end in January 1815. The battle of Pensacola though of no consequence militarily portrayed Jackson and American nation’s overwhelming war strategies.

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